The Anna Polke Foundation offers scholarships each year for outstanding research projects on the work of Sigmar Polke. It promotes projects that open up new perspectives on his oeuvre. In 2020 the scholarship recipients were selected by a commission of experts consisting of Dr. Stefan Gronert (Sprengel Museum Hannover), Dr. Kathrin Rottmann (Ruhr-Universität Bochum/Universität Hamburg), Prof. Dr. Dietmar Rübel (Akademie der Bildenden Künste, München) and Sophia Stang (Anna Polke Foundation).
Ksenija Tschetschik-Hammerl, M.A.
Ksenija Tschetschik-Hammerl studied Art and Visual History as well as Modern History at Humboldt University in Berlin. In February 2020, she submitted her dissertation there titled Originalität der Nachahmung um 1600. Kunst begegnet Natur bei Hans Hoffmann und Daniel Fröschel (Originality of Imitation Around 1600: Art Faces Nature In the Works of Hans Hoffmann and Daniel Fröschel). The dissertation project was supported by the Gerda Henkel Foundation. She was also a lecturer in art history at the Caspar David Friedrich Institute in Greifswald. Her teaching and research focuses on art and collecting practice in the early modern era, monograms and signatures, as well as artistic appropriation practices from the early modern period to the present.
Hasenschleife. Sigmar Polke’s Dürer Appropriation
Abstract of the research project by Ksenija Tschetschik-Hammerl
Two motifs from the oeuvre of the Nuremberg Renaissance painter Albrecht Dürer appear several times in the work of Sigmar Polke. On the one hand, Polke worked with the image of the famous Young Hare (germ. Hase) from the Albertina in Vienna; and on the other, he copied the lines forming loops (germ. sing. Schleife) and curves in Dürer’s marginal drawings in the prayer book of Emperor Maximilian and of the large-format woodcut Der Große Triumphwagen (The Large Triumphal Carriage). Sigmar Polke’s artistic language, in which heterogeneous motifs, materials and techniques are interwoven and often recur in different contexts, suggests that Dürer’s motifs also relate to each other in his work reflecting a complex and dynamic relationship between the artist and his older colleague. In the present research project, Polke’s selection and use of Dürer’s motifs are scrutinized in relation to one another for the first time. It attempts to reconstruct Polke’s appropriation of works by the Nuremberg master as a process of artistic examination spanning several decades.
The method of artistic appropriation is considered one of the most important forms of expression and strategies in modern and postmodern art. The term appropriation art has established itself in art criticism since the ground-breaking New York exhibition Pictures in 1977, which presented works by a number of young American artists. Although the presentational formats of the participating contributions diverged considerably, the imitation of imagery from outside sources characterized all of the projects. The imitation of works of others as well as various appropriations of the ‘foreign’ can already be observed in works by pre-modern artists. In art-historical research, these practices are usually explained as involving learning intentions, commitment to a canon, or motives related to artistic competition. Only rarely are reflexive or critical artistic motivations considered in connection with the imitation practices in older art. In contrast, various forms of imitation and processing of images or other objects created by others in twentieth and twenty-first century art are predominantly interpreted as subversive and critical strategies of expression. The special feature of the art-critical and art-historical reception of Polke’s appropriations of Dürer’s works has so far been that it is characterized by two seemingly contradictory interpretative perspectives, thus creating the impression of a disconcertingly incongruent view of Dürer on the part of Polke.
While Polke’s works incorporating the motif of Dürer’s hare are explained as a persiflage of post-war consumer culture or as a trivialization of artistic tradition, his adoptions of Dürer’s line loops are primarily interpreted as an exceedingly serious examination of Dürer’s creative impetus or at least of his artistic status. Hence the current state of research on Polke’s reception of Dürer reveals contradictory and almost mutually exclusive explanatory concepts and calls for a thorough reconsideration. The present research project focuses on the interplay between various appropriations of Dürer’s works in Sigmar Polke’s oeuvre. The investigation touches on fundamental questions of Polke research, including the correlation between irony and Polke’s interest in creative and generative processes in his art. Furthermore, the significance of authorship and artistic authority in Polke’s oeuvre is re-examined.
Magnus Schäfer, M.A.
Magnus Schäfer is an author and curator. From 2012 to 2019 he was a curator at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, where he co-organized the retrospectives Alibis: Sigmar Polke 1963-2010 (2014) and Bruce Nauman: Disappearing Acts (2018-19), and organized Projects 195: Park McArthur (2018-19), the artist’s first institutional solo exhibition in New York. Together with Hannes Loichinger he published the first comprehensive monograph on Ull Hohn, titled Foregrounds, Distances, in 2015. The focus of his current research is on the role of digital media in formatting perception.
There is No Such Thing as Too Much Information: Sigmar Polke and the Digital
Abstract of the research project by Magnus Schäfer
From the 1960s until the first decade of the twenty-first century, Sigmar Polke’s multifaceted work questioned and deliberately undermined the conventions of artistic media including painting, drawing, photography, film and language. While he nominally adhered to these media, he continually eroded their boundaries, relinquishing established certainties about their appearance and functions. The period in which Polke worked coincided with the proliferation of digital communication and image media. This raises the question of whether and to what extent Polke’s images can be brought into a productive dialogue with this development. Of less interest here is the role digital images have played in Polke’s work, which is minor. Rather, the research project Es gibt kein Zuviel an Information. Sigmar Polke und das Digitale (There is No Such Thing as Too Much Information: Sigmar Polke and the Digital) investigates the forms in which the relationship between the continuity of the Kittlerian “Real” and its translation into discrete information characterizing the digital comes into play in Polke’s hybrid image media.
As Rachel Jans and Kathrin Rottmann have pointed out in their contributions to the catalogue Alibis: Sigmar Polke 1963-2010, some of Polke’s works from the 1960s attest to a familiarity on the part of the artist with the technical-formal foundations of the television image coded into individual pixels (conveyed by his teacher Karl-Otto Götz) and the binary on/off scheme of digital operations. However, the fact that Polke imagined digital communication in 1968 as a telepathic session with the late poet William Blake illustrates that the seriousness with which contemporaries such as Max Bense had proposed communication theory as the basis for a new aesthetic a few years earlier is diametrically opposed to Polke’s artistic sensitivity.
In the early 1980s, however, things looked somewhat different. The Copyist (1982) shows a figure in the foreground, bent over a desk and writing into a large book. This medieval copyist is not reproducing another manuscript, but is observing a landscape which, the composition suggests, he translates into writing; he transfers the phenomenological wealth of what he sees into a discreet and symbolic medium, thus opening it up to further forms of data processing.
At the other end of the media spectrum are Polke’s novel gestural-abstract works, among them the Negative Value triptych, also created in 1982. These pictures feature iridescent surface effects, which Polke achieved through special treatment of violet pigments; they change according to the standpoint of the viewer, so that the three canvases can appear dramatically different from different perspectives. These effects—and thus the images as such—are difficult to capture in photographs and thus resist being stored as discrete information. Polke developed this experimental approach at a time when electronic data processing was becoming more and more important and visible. With the technique of dragnet investigation introduced in the late 1970s, automated data processing became established in the societal consciousness of the Federal Republic of Germany. At about the same time, the first PCs became available to consumers. Against this background, Polke’s abstract images could be understood, with reference to the media theorist Friedrich Kittler, as the noise that underlies all communication and simultaneously forms the unwritable counterpart to the symbolic.
Polke also began experimenting with photocopiers in the 1980s. Enlargements of images from newspapers and magazines made the raster of the printed originals clearly visible—an effect he had been reproducing manually since the 1960s. Owing to the inaccuracy of the copying process, these enlargements created previously invisible constellations of raster dots which Polke sometimes extended or commented on with additional graphisms in order to give them a figurative meaning. By moving the originals during the copying process, he distorted representational motifs, sometimes causing them to become abstract (e.g. in the portfolio Kugelsichere Ferien (Bullet-Proof Holidays) from 1995). In the vocabulary of communication theory, noise stands for too many choices on the part of the recipient, i.e. a surplus of information that erases meaning. In order to transmit information economically, it is necessary to achieve the ideal distance between meaning and the inevitable noise. Polke’s photocopy experiments show that an excess of information can also lead to new meanings, thus opening up a productive dimension to noise.
In terms of the significance of the digital in Polke’s later works, the question arises as to how far the juxtaposition with Hito Steyerl’s concept of the “poor” image (cf. her essay In Defense of the Poor Image from 2009) can be illuminating. As it circulates through the media, the “poor” image, which is digital in principle, undergoes processes of compression, quality reduction and contextual shift, and thus appears as a “visual idea in its very becoming,” linked to the contemporary conditions of image distribution. Can Polke’s distorted photocopies be understood as analogue precursors of these “poor” images, or as a counter-model that, despite formal similarities (e.g. low resolution or reproductions of already reproduced material), makes the differences all the more obvious?
In 2019, the foundation offered two research scholarships geared to art historians and academics in related disciplines from Germany and abroad.
The Members of the commission 2019 were Dr. Jacqueline Burckhardt, Bice Curiger, Prof. Dr. Petra Lange-Berndt and Sophia Stang. As scholarship holders have been selected Dr. des. Dirk Hildebrandt and Dr. Julie Sissia. More information about the funded projects as well as the scholarship holder can bei found here:
Dr. des. Dirk Hildebrandt
Dirk Hildebrandt is research associate at the Institute of Art History at the University of Cologne (majoring in modern/present and aesthetic theories); studied art history and philosophy in Bonn, Paris and Basel. Doctorate at the University of Basel (The Extension of Art. Allan Kaprow und der Werkbegriff des Happenings); current focus of work: Asger Jorn and the networks of European post-war art, artist books and processes of intermedial writing, art and artist theories of modernity and the present.
In die Fläche publizieren. Sigmar Polke’s (artist) books
Abstract of the research project by Dr. des. Hildebrandt
The Anna Polke Foundation-funded project In die Fläche Publizieren (Publishing in two dimensions) explores a medium that offers new insights into Sigmar Polke’s entire artistic production: the (artist) book.
The fact that art is initially in parentheses here is due not least to the fact that Polke’s books do not stand out, at least not in the sense of artist books as they are known from the corresponding research – for instance as particularly exalted and expensive ‘originals’ that above all explore the limits of the book format. Polke’s book-like publications appear – mainly as ‘wolves in sheep’s clothing’, i.e. as outwardly rather reservedly designed examples of their genre. Consequently, it is not only a matter of focusing on the individual ‘book as a work of art’, but also on the manifold contexts in which Polke (re)-turned to the book as a publication medium for his artistic production. This means that not only these books themselves, but also their relationships to neighbouring formats should be examined, the design and publication of which the artist practiced over the course of his career (e.g. newspaper articles, editions, articles in catalogues and magazines). In short, the (artist) book is of interest as a medium that opens up contexts in Polke’s multifaceted oeuvre and enables connecting structures to be revealed.
So the ‘art’ in Polke’s (artist) books is not in parentheses here because, for example, its status, its ‘artfulness’ and its belonging to the artist’s oeuvre would be otherwise unclear. Rather, it is about the book as mediator that allows the artist’s procedures, which extend to artless (and therefore political) contexts, such as those known from Polke’s painting or graphic art, to be made comprehensible in another, different way. In relation to Polke’s oeuvre, the (artist) book has different explanatory functions. It not only makes visible connections to artistic and historical, as well as economic and political contexts, but also makes intermedial processes readable. In other words, the (artist) book promises to mediate in a new way between painting, sculpture, photography, film, and church windows, i.e. the forms of expression for which the artist’s work is generally appreciated.
Referring to the history of the book as a means of artistic expression or publication in this analysis has the advantage that it brings into play ideas of mediality that are off the beaten track of post-war art history. Unlike painting, for example, the book appears per se as a medium that defines its own subject matter and nature by borrowing from other and different media. In order to be able to represent this ‘otherness’ in a meaningful way with regard to Polke’s art, it is nevertheless indispensable to stick closely to the ‘previous’ history. Concepts of ‘flatness’ are available to investigate connections between book and painting. While these concepts, especially under the conditions of the 1960s, were still closely connected to an engagement with painting, the project In die Fläche publiziereninvestigates an intermedial flatness that is intended to allow the various technical, artistic and contextual interrelationships within Sigmar Polke’s work to be followed.
Dr. Julie Sissia
Julie Sissia holds a doctorate in art history from the IEP of Paris (2015). She is associate researcher at the Centre d’histoire de sciences Po and lecturer at the Ecole du Louvre. Her book entitled The German Mirror. GDR and FRG in the discourse on contemporary art in France. 1959–1989 will be published by Les presses du réel. In 2019, she worked as a scientific collaborator at the Musée d’Art moderne de la Ville de Paris on the Hans Hartung retrospective (autumn 2019). From 2010 to 2015, she was a member of the research team at the German Centre for Art History (Paris) within the ERC project A chacun son réel.
“Cher Maître”. Sigmar Polke and France
Abstract of the research project by Dr. Sissia
“Sigmar Polke (1941-2010) is one of the great painters of the second half of the twentieth century. We know this everywhere in Europe, except in France […]”.
In this succinct statement in the daily newspaper Le Monde from 2013, the art historian Philippe Dagen deplores French museums’ lack of interest in Sigmar Polke. While the artist was celebrated at MoMA and Tate Modern, the Musée national d’art moderne in Paris preferred Anselm Kiefer and Jeff Koons. However, this criticism must be viewed in a more differentiated way.
“Cher Maître” (Dear Master)… Suzanne Pagé turned to Sigmar Polke with admiration during the preparation of his exhibition at the Musée d’art moderne de la Ville de Paris (1988). As director of the museum and the ARC – an experimental art space housed in the same building – Suzanne Pagé made this institution an indispensable contemporary art venue in France beginning inthe early 1970s. At the museum, she particularly supported German artists of Sigmar Polke’s generation. In 1981, Polke was on view in the exhibition Art Allemagne Aujourd’hui; with the famous Berlin gallery owner René Block, she brought together artists who had made Germany one of the world’s most dynamic art centres. French museums’ late recognition of an entire generation of German artists was a consequence of the painful history between the two countries; it was also due to the reluctance of French critics and art historians since the 1960s to accept that Paris was no longer the international art capital. The recognition of German artists in 1980s France was hardly unanimous.
While in the 1980s the German identity that several German artists laid claim to irritated certain protagonists of the French art scene, Sigmar Polke enjoyed unanimous recognition. So what place does he occupy in the French discourse, and according to what criteria are his works perceived? I would like to investigate the extent to which French art historians and critics nevertheless viewed Sigmar Polke politically. The artist steered clear of national categories and was therefore not classified as a “German artist”. But like his work, his French reception cannot be regarded as apolitical for this reason. From the bicentenary of the French Revolution (1989), to the exhibition Les Magiciens de la terre – which was also part of this celebration – Polke’s works are showcased in artistic events with strong political content that interrogate the history of France from an international perspective as well as its place in an increasingly globalized world.
To what extent did French critics, and French artists, regard Polke’s work as epitomizing new artistic paradigms? Is French discourse on his work singular in a time of crisis in modernity, which is often described in a somewhat hasty generalization as ‘postmodernism’? The study intends to examine the values, as well as the prejudices – even if they are positive – on which the discourse on Polke’s work is based. These hypotheses require a broader perspective on the French context. On the one hand, it is necessary to confront the French reception with other art critiques, whether in Germany (in the influential journal Texte zur Kunst), or in the USA (for example October); on the other hand, the role of relevant events, especially the Venice Biennale of 1986, which played an important part in the assessment of Sigmar Polke’s work also in France, must be taken into account.
Philippe Dagen, Comment Sigmar Polke a rajeuni le vieil art de peindre, in Le Monde, 2 December 2013.
Paris, Musée d’art moderne de la Ville de Paris, archives of the exhibition Polke, 20 October–31 December 1988.
Art Allemagne Aujourd’hui, Paris, Musée d’art moderne de la Ville de Paris, 17 January–8 March 1981.